Palayarai was the secondary capital city of the medieval Cholas. It is situated about 7 kms away from Kumbakonam. Megalithic urn burials were already reported from Nandanmedu near Palayarai. The excavation at a mound covering an area of 20 acres of land yielded early potsherds like black and red ware belonging to the megalithic period. Medieval potsherds such as coarse red ware, black ware, porcelain potsherds, glass and shell bangle pieces, terracotta spouts, knobs, terracotta and stone beads and terracotta ear lobes were also found.

Heaps of terracotta lamps belonging to the medieval period were also unearthed.